Tourism in mature, seasonal destinations such as The Balearic Islands should be redirected towards more sustainable products and policies. The present study examines hiking tourists, underlining the role and great potential they have for the destination. A sample of hikers approached in the Tramuntana mountain range was segmented by age, differentiating between senior hikers of 60 years and above, and the rest of respondents. The analysis of results showed distinct socio-demographic characteristics and motivations for choosing the tourist destination, as well as different patterns of tourist behaviour, spending and levels of satisfaction. The findings have important practical applications for the promotion of hiking destinations as tourism products.
The present study focuses on multichannel retailing strategies and describes the state of consumer behavior regarding “showrooming” (the practice of examining merchandise or products in a retail store and then buying it online). Founded on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), we examine the antecedents of competitive showrooming using data collected from a sample of 176 retail consumers. Based on our results, we define perceived control, website compatibility, and subjective norms as the main antecedents of consumer attitudes toward online purchases. Additionally, we state that previous experience and reasons against purchasing online are directly associated with consumers’ intention to purchase on the retailer’s website. Finally, some theoretical conclusions and practical implications for retailers are discussed.
Social networking sites (SNS) are used to promote brands, products or services through targeted marketing campaigns, but the precise effectiveness of these campaigns has yet to be established (Van Noort et al. 2012). The research question we address in this study is whether commercial communication via SNS is cognitively effective. A review of the literature clearly shows that if a commercial message receives no prior attention, the likelihood that it will be processed by and influence the consumer is negligible (Chan et al. 2004).
For the purposes of this study we consider that an individual has given attention to a message when the advertising information transmitted has an impact on his or her memory, in the form of brand recall and recognition. A classical post-test survey design was used to examine the responses of a panel of Facebook users to advertising formats displayed within the site. The type of advertising format was used as a control factor to determine the impact on the cognitive effectiveness of the message transmitted. The study has a twofold objective: (1) to examine which of the formats most commonly used in social media advertising condition attention types; and (2) to analyse the effect of advertising pressure on consumer attention and brand recall.
Social media advertising is an effective communication tool for attracting user attention, leading to higher attention levels than those recorded for advertising in other online contexts. Differences are observed in user attention to distinct advertising stimuli, with video found to be the most effective format for attracting user attention in SNS. However, higher advertising pressure leads to lower attention levels and poorer recall rates. Active exposure to social media advertising leads to higher recall rates of the messages transmitted. The constraints of this study include the use of single product/brand, and the experimental conditions of the data collection stage. Among our future areas of research we propose to evaluate attention in behavioural terms, using a range of tools including eye-tracking to provide empirical evidence of attention rates for social media advertising.
Cognitive Effectiveness Social Media Advertising Brand Recall Consumer Attention
This study explores how the virtual brand community (VBC) of soccer-team supporters influence the brand’s attitude toward sponsorship according to the theory of image transfer. The study provides a comparative analysis using both structural equation modeling (SEM) and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). 609 supporters of a professional, 1st division Spanish soccer team provide the data. The results from SEM support the importance of control, attitude toward the team, and identification variables. However, SEM cannot assure the usefulness of variables such as trust and opportunism when evaluating the resulting attitude toward the sponsor.
The results from the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) on the same data set show that not all variables are necessary conditions in order to influence sponsorship. The most relevant variables to obtain valid and useful results are control, attitude toward the team, and trust. The combination of attitude toward the team, identification, and trust is also valid. Attitude toward the team and trust variables are present in the two combinations of variables leading to a positive, favorable attitude toward the sponsor, thus reflecting their importance in marketing experts’ assessment of image transmission in professional teams.
Brand delisting is a specific type of assortment reduction. It refers to the removal of all items of a single brand, leading to the unavailability of the brand within the store (Sloot and Verhoef 2008, p. 281). Recent retailing-related professional publications indicate that national brand (NB) delistings are not uncommon in food retailing (e.g., the American retailer Wal-Mart, the Dutch food retail chain Edah, the UK retailer ASDA, the German retailers Edeka and Metro, and the Spanish retailer Mercadona). Conflicts of retailers with manufacturers seemed to be behind such delisting decisions. Indeed, delisting – or threatening to delist – a manufacturer’s brand is a tool that retailers often use to improve their negotiation position with brand manufacturers. Notwithstanding, despite the great managerial relevance of this topic, researchers have paid almost no attention to brand delisting so far. There is only limited research (papers by Boatwright and Nunes 2001; Sloot and Verhoef 2008; Wiebach and Hildebrandt 2012) on the effects of an entire brand delisting. However, none of these papers analyzes the consequences of delisting all national brands in a given assortment, so that a retailer offers an assortment based only on private labels (PL). Can a retailer ‘push out’ all manufacturer brands from its shelves, offering only its own brand, with no consequences? This is the main research question of our paper.
In summary, our results reveal that retailers should be particularly careful about delisting NBs (specially high-equity NBs), given that there is an inverse relationship between assortment size and the intentions to switch to another store to purchase the category as well as the whole shopping-basket. Therefore, we recommend retailers to offer assortments containing both their own brand and a higher number of NBs (nine vs. three). Offering ‘only-PL’ assortments has negative consequences in terms of consumers having a greater probability to switch to another store to purchase. Nevertheless, for retailers offering ‘mixed’ assortments, a higher proportion of high-equity NBs may help to reduce the intentions to switch to another store.
This research has been funded by Foundation Ramón Areces (Spain).
Brands Brand Delisting National Brand Private Label