The purpose of this chapter is to contextualize the situation of the use of remote response devices or clickers in education and identify the benefits that tools such as Q-Click software can bring to university teaching and to different groups of students. To fulfil this objective, the authors conducted research in classes with students who rated 149 different aspects related to the use of such software, including its use in class, benefits, and implications for follow-up assessment of the subject, attention, and class quality. This information was then compared to other groups of students studying the same subject who did not use clickers in class. The findings confirm the original proposal verifying the usefulness of these tools in university teaching for the important consequences for students and teachers.
The real interest of young people in Information Technology and Communication (ICT) is a phenomenon that has been widely studied in scientific literature because of its implications and social consequences. It is common knowledge that today’s youth have the highest rates of use of computers, Internet access, email, and mobile phones, among other technologies (National Institute of Statistics, INE, 2011). A college education should therefore use these tools to improve processes and outcomes of student learning (Wan et al., 2007) to meet the targets set in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).
The analysis of the implementation of ICT in teaching began several decades ago as its advantages, which reinforced the educational level of students, were recognized. Ferro et al. (2009) summarizes the main advantages of using ICT in university teaching. ICTs:
To date there have been many innovations that have been implemented in teaching: (i) multimedia tools (Alférez et al., 2010), (ii) whiteboards (Murillo, 2010), (iii) web sites (Gates, 2011), (iv) wikis (Ortiz de Urbina and Mora, 2011), (v) forums (Benitez et al., 2011), (vi) Mobile Learning (Liaw et al., 2009), (vii) second life (Checa, 2010) and even (viii) microblogging networks (Liébana-Cabanillas et al., 2011).
The use of remote response devices, electronic voting systems, systems and audience response clickers, began in the sixties (Chafer, 2009), although it was not until the nineties when their use began to flourish. Although these devices were originally used for management meetings, opinion surveys, and conventions, etc. (Ruiz-Jimenez et al., 2010), such tools are widely used in some American universities (Harvard, Massachusetts-Amherst, Colorado, etc.). Recently, these devices are also being used in Spanish universities (Navarra, Barcelona, Granada, Seville, Madrid, etc.) since remote response devices reinforce the quality of education, and improve student performance and the productivity of teachers.
These are devices that allow students to obtain information found in the classroom in an agile, fast and simple via a transmitter (clicker) and receiver system connected by infrared or Bluetooth, to communicate and record responses that students make.
The information obtained in the interaction is processed immediately, allowing instant feedback between teacher and student, which demonstrates class understanding and knowledge on a regular basis, as well as potential problems that students may have with the subject.
In this paper we review the most recent developments and contributions in the field of social media to business and professional networking, marketing, and critical success factors including case studies in communications actions. More specifically, we focus on the role of advertising in Internet social networks (ISN) and their function as a channel of communication from the consumer’s perspective. To do so, we describe the important role ISNs play today in business strategies aimed at relationship marketing as well as the most widely-used advertising formats. We apply the Elaboration Likelihood Model of behavior to ISNs to gain a better understanding of advertising effectiveness from the standpoint of degree of involvement; distinguishing between vehicle exposure and ad involvement. Finally, factors that reduce the effectiveness of advertising in ISNs are revised using a model that focuses on cognitive avoidance. In the research, cognitive avoidance and advertising effectiveness are considered to be consequences of undesirable perceptions that emerge during exposure to advertisements.
ADVERGAMING: (Advertising and Gaming) Is the practice of using video games to advertise a product, organization or viewpoint. Advergames theoretically promote repeated traffic to websites and reinforce brands.
AdSense: A system developed and run by Google is one example of an advertising format that uses targeting. Website owners can enroll in the program to enable text, image, and video advertisements on their websites. These advertisements are administered by Google and generate revenue on either a per-click or per-impression basis. Google uses its search technology to embed ads according to the content of the web page being visited by the user, the user’s geographical location (by means of IP) and other data such as previous search histories in Google or pages visited by the user, cookies, length of session, operating system, browser used, etc.
Perceived Ad Clutter: Is a consumer’s conviction that the amount of advertising in a medium is excessive, because the increase number or proportion of advertising in the media vehicle.
Sponsored Links and Contextual Advertising: This form of advertising mimics the aspect of the web content on the ISN. It contains brief information about the indexed link and redirects users through clicks to an external web page or a fixed section of a brand or product on the Internet.
Pop-Up Ads & Pop-Under Ads: Pop-ups are a type of floating formats advertising that is automatically displayed in second browser window (generally without being requested by the user) when accessing certain web pages. Pop-ups are used to display an ad unit in an intrusive manner. Pop-unders are a similar advertising format that opens a new browser hidden behind the active window being used. Pop-unders interrupt users less, but are not seen until the window is closed, making it more difficult for users to determine which web site opened them.
Integrated Formats: Type of ad that includes: Sponsored links, AdSense, Banners, buttons, Full-page ads, skyscrapers.
Interstitials & Superstitials: Are a type of transitional formats,. The terms interstitial and superstitial mean “in the medium” or “over the medium” and can appear in a separate window when a web page requested by the user is being downloaded. These are web page advertisements that are similar to television commercials.
Ad Intrusiveness: Depending on the degree to which the advertisement interferes with the user’s cognitive process, perceived intrusiveness will be detectable to a lesser or greater degree.
Video Advertising: There are two main types of video formats: video formats which are placed in the content of a website known as in-page formats, and those in which advertisers embed their video message directly into video content. The latter, known as in-stream video formats can be divided into three different types: pre-rolls, mid-rolls and post-rolls. Pre-rolls show the advertisement before the main video content starts, mid-rolls are placed between two parts of video content and post-rolls present the video ad after the main content has finished.
Word of Mouth in Internet Social Networks (ISN-eWOM): e-Wom type that occurs in social networks and online media (i.e., social networks, blogs, forums and other 2.0 media).
The importance of Electronic Banking as an alternative channel for marketing products and services, along with the associated cost savings, has brought about significant changes in the financial sector in recent years. Electronic Banking has become a differentiator among financial institutions, which has led to an attempt to increase customer satisfaction level by fulfilling their expectations. Accordingly, the goal of this paper is to identify the factors that influence the satisfaction level of Electronic Banking users in Spain, following a proposed behavioural model, in addition to determining the influence of the gender variable on our analysis, as a moderator in such relationships. The usefulness of this type of research for financial institutions lies in the support they provide in defining customer profiles. When compared to other similar online satisfaction survey studies, this paper is a pioneer in using empirical analysis to study the effects of gender on customer satisfaction in online banking.