978-3-319-11815-4

Evaluation of the Cognitive Effectiveness on Social Media Advertising Formats.

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F., Martínez-López, F. J., Esteban-Millat, I., & Gázquez-Abad, J. C.
In Let’s Get Engaged! Crossing the Threshold of Marketing’s Engagement Era (pp. 133-134). Springer International Publishing
Publication year: 2016

Social networking sites (SNS) are used to promote brands, products or services through targeted marketing campaigns, but the precise effectiveness of these campaigns has yet to be established (Van Noort et al. 2012). The research question we address in this study is whether commercial communication via SNS is cognitively effective. A review of the literature clearly shows that if a commercial message receives no prior attention, the likelihood that it will be processed by and influence the consumer is negligible (Chan et al. 2004).

For the purposes of this study we consider that an individual has given attention to a message when the advertising information transmitted has an impact on his or her memory, in the form of brand recall and recognition. A classical post-test survey design was used to examine the responses of a panel of Facebook users to advertising formats displayed within the site. The type of advertising format was used as a control factor to determine the impact on the cognitive effectiveness of the message transmitted. The study has a twofold objective: (1) to examine which of the formats most commonly used in social media advertising condition attention types; and (2) to analyse the effect of advertising pressure on consumer attention and brand recall.

Social media advertising is an effective communication tool for attracting user attention, leading to higher attention levels than those recorded for advertising in other online contexts. Differences are observed in user attention to distinct advertising stimuli, with video found to be the most effective format for attracting user attention in SNS. However, higher advertising pressure leads to lower attention levels and poorer recall rates. Active exposure to social media advertising leads to higher recall rates of the messages transmitted. The constraints of this study include the use of single product/brand, and the experimental conditions of the data collection stage. Among our future areas of research we propose to evaluate attention in behavioural terms, using a range of tools including eye-tracking to provide empirical evidence of attention rates for social media advertising.

Keywords: Cognitive Effectiveness Social Media Advertising Brand Recall Consumer Attention
Digital advertising

A review of Classics and new Internet and Social networks advertising formats

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F. & Martínez-López, F.J.
In Digital Advertising co-edited by Drs. Shelly Rodgers and Esther Thorson. Editorial Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
Publication year: 2016

The upward trend in investing in Internet advertising highlights the increasing use of the Net as a space for performing promotional activities. Specifically, companies’ integrated marketing communications (IMC) are using the Internet as a main means of advertising and, increasingly social networks, as part of their communication strategies. This chapter provides an exhaustive theoretical analysis of the efficacy of on-line advertising. The analysis focuses specifically on on-line communication research, with an in-depth study of the most widely used advertising formats. The chapter concludes with some recommendations for managers and academics for improving the efficacy of on-line communication particularly within the social network context.

Keywords. Advertising effectiveness, Internet advertising, online advertising formats, social network sites.

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Understanding the Green Buying Behavior of Younger Millennials from India and the United States: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

Journal paper
Muralidharan, S., Rejón-Guardia, F., & Xue, F.
Journal of International Consumer Marketing Volume 28, 2016 - Issue 1
Publication year: 2015

The consumer socialization framework cites the importance of family, peers, and mass media in the consumption learning process, but their impact on Millennials in the realm of green consumerism has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was (a) to propose an integrative theoretical model for determining the relative importance of socialization factors on Millennials’ green buying behavior and (b) to study the impact of culture in selecting socialization agents as sources of green product information.

Using Amazon M-Turk, an online survey was administered to a sample of younger Millennials from India (n = 253) and the United States (n = 253) aged 18 – 24 years. Structural equation modeling provided general support for the model. The results showed that interpersonal sources were more important in elevating environmental concerns and promoting green buying behavior than mass media. In India, family impacted environmental concern while peers influenced green buying behavior. For the US, both interpersonal sources impacted green attitudes and behavior. Environmental concern was found to play a mediating role in the socialization process and differences between and within genders in each country were found. Theoretical and marketing implications are discussed.

KEYWORDS: Consumer socializationcultureenvironmental concerngreen buying behaviorIndiaUnited Statesyounger Millennials

intrcover

Consumers’ psychological outcomes linked to the use of an online store’s recommendation system

Journal paper
Francisco J. Martínez-López, Irene Esteban-Millat, Ana Argila, & Francisco Rejón-Guardia.
Internet Research, 25 (4), 562-588
Publication year: 2015

Purpose – Psychological perspective has been omitted or considered a secondary issue by past studies focused on e-commerce recommendation systems (RS). However, this perspective is key to gaining a better understanding of consumer behaviours when these systems are used to support purchasing processes at online stores. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach – The field study consisted of a simulated online shopping process undertaken by a sample of internet users with a recommender system at a real online store (Pixmania). The authors applied rigorous and detailed exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess the empirical validity of the model.

Findings – The proposed sequence of psychological outcomes is valid, with the exception of one hypothesized relationship. In particular, satisfaction with an online store’s recommender has a strong influence on a consumer’s willingness to purchase one of the items related to his/her shopping goal. However, this satisfaction has no direct effect on a consumer’s intention to make add-on purchases based on the recommender’s suggestions. On the contrary, the results support the idea that add-on purchases are conditioned by a previous purchase related to the consumer’s initial shopping goal. On the other hand, a consumer’s flow state while shopping improves all his/her psychological outcomes linked to an online store’s recommender. The influence of flow state is particularly interesting when seeking to gain a better understanding of consumers’ unplanned purchases based on the recommender’s suggestions. These findings have important implications for practitioners.

Originality/value – This paper discusses in detail and empirically test a set of psychological outcomes that emerge when an e-vendor’s recommender is used to assist a consumer’s shopping process. To the best of the knowledge, this is the first attempt that empirically tests most of the hypothesized relationships within an online store’s RS context.

978-3-642-39747-9

The Pervasive Influence of Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) on Today’s Social Consumer

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F., & Martínez-López, F. J.
In Handbook of Strategic e-Business Management (pp. 821–839). Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication year: 2014

Social networking sites (SNSs) are a booming worldwide phenomenon with enormous business potential for companies to communicate with their target-audience consumers and spread their brand-related messages. One of the notable distinguishing characteristics of SNSs, when compared to previous Web 1.0-based communication tools, is the active role that consumers play in the communication process with companies and, even more importantly, with other consumers. SNSs provide a setting where commentaries, analyses and recommendations about brands, products and services are communicated. EWOM is a unique and powerful consequence of SNSs. In this chapter, we perform a conceptual analysis of eWOM, of the motivations for engaging in it and of its effects on consumers’ behavior, paying special attention to the type of eWOM that takes place in SNSs. Finally, some relevant managerial implications and research opportunities are discussed.

Keywords

WOM eWOM Motivations Effects in consumers’ behavior Social networks

978-3-642-39747-9

Online Advertising Intrusiveness and Consumers’ Avoidance Behaviors.

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F., & Martínez-López, F. J.
In Handbook of Strategic e-Business Management (pp. 565–586). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Publication year: 2014

The proliferation of advertising in all communication media causes consumers to perceive a significant amount of competitiveness between advertised products, as well as to feel overwhelmed by the intrusiveness of their advertisements. When taken together, these dimensions form the concept “advertising clutter.” A review of the literature shows that perceived intrusiveness is the main component of the perception of clutter. Advertising clutter can prompt undesired behaviors (e.g., advertising avoidance) as well as attitudes contrary to those that companies’ advertising campaigns hope to achieve. It also leads to diminished advertising efficacy in terms of consumer memory, a decrease in positive attitudes towards the message and brand, as well as declined purchasing intention and, therefore, sales. In this article, the main consequences of advertising clutter for consumers in online media are reviewed and discussed. To that end, a theoretical review of this concept and its main dimensions is performed; special attention is paid to the online context. Finally, some practical recommendations and research opportunities are pointed out.

Keywords

Intrusiveness Online advertising clutter Irritation Avoidance

978-3-642-39747-9

n Integrated Review of the Efficacy of Internet Advertising: Concrete Approaches to the Banner Ad Format and the Context of Social Networks

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F., & Martínez-López, F. J.
In Handbook of Strategic e-Business Management (pp. 523–564). Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication year: 2014

Advertising investment on the Internet is currently growing at a faster rate than in all other means of communication. Specifically, companies’ integrated marketing communications (IMC) are using the Internet as a main means of advertising and, increasingly, social networks as part of their communication strategies. Given their growing importance, this chapter performs an exhaustive theoretical analysis of the efficacy of online advertising. First, we perform a detailed inventory of the main forms of advertising used on the Web and social networking sites. Afterward, we analyze the variables shown, through literature, to be most influential on online advertising effectiveness, paying special attention to the banner ad format. Next, the topic of advertising effectiveness in the specific context of social network sites is discussed. In conclusion, some relevant implications for practitioners and research opportunities are presented.

Keywords: Advertising effectiveness Internet advertising Online advertising Advertising formats Banner ads Social network sites

largecover

The determinants of satisfaction with e-banking

Journal paper
Francisco Liébana‐Cabanillas, Francisco Muñoz‐Leiva, Francisco Rejón‐Guardia,
Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 113 Iss: 5, pp.750 - 767
Publication year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to contribute to the field of satisfaction research from the perspective of electronic banking users; a topic of great interest to the business strategies of financial institutions. In this context, the authors analyse the main determinants of user experience with a specific institution’s products. A comprehensive review of the scientific literature has justified the development of a behavioural model that explains satisfaction using a set of constructs or endogenous variables.

Data was collected from a self-administered web survey in the authenticated section of the electronic banking service of a prestigious financial institution.The analysis tests the relationship between the proposed variables (accessibility, trust, ease of use and usefulness) and satisfaction with electronic banking.

The study was limited to the data of a single financial institution. Caution should therefore be exercised in generalising the results. The research results provide a number of valuable conclusions for financial institutions. This paper is a pioneer study of satisfaction with electronic banking, especially of the relationships between satisfaction and its main determinants.

Keyword: Electronic banking, Satisfaction, Determinants, Expectation disconfirmation, Banking, Customer satisfaction

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The acceptance of microblogging in the learning process – The μbam Model

Journal paper
Rejón-Guardia, F., Sánchez-Fernández, J., & Muñoz-Leiva, F.
Journal of Technology and Science Education, Vol 3, Nº1
Publication year: 2013

Microblogging social networks (μBSNs) provide the opportunity to communicate worldwide while using a small number of characters; this is an apparent limitation that forces users to share only essential information when linking to the world with which they interact. These platforms can serve to motivate students by narrowing the physical and psychological distances separating teachers and students, thus increasing their confidence and engagement in the learning process. The main thrust of this paper is the notion that μBSNs open a window to informal knowledge, self-directed learning and the creation of knowledge-based networks for use in aclassroom setting.

To examine this issue in greater depth, an experiment was carried out using a μBSN before, during and after face-to-face class sessions. In this study we used the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), incorporating some of the constructs commonly found in the scientific literature. These constructs refer to the effect of subjective norms and social images on the use of web-based social networks. The analysis gave rise to a robust and parsimonious model of social network usage behavior that confirmed the proposed research hypotheses. The findings demonstrated that the extended TAM model is suitable for explaining the acceptance of web-based teaching tools as well as the validity of microblogging networks in combination with traditional classes.

Keywords: self e-learning; TAM; µBAM; microblogging; social networks

Introducción al marketing: selección de capítulos de Introducción al Marketing

Books
Liébana Cabanillas, F. J., Martínez Fiestas, M., Rejón-Guardia, F., & Armstrong, G. (Eds.).
3a ed. de Gary Armstrong, et al (2a ed.). Madrid: Pearson Educación
Publication year: 2013