The upward trend in investing in Internet advertising highlights the increasing use of the Net as a space for performing promotional activities. Specifically, companies’ integrated marketing communications (IMC) are using the Internet as a main means of advertising and, increasingly social networks, as part of their communication strategies. This chapter provides an exhaustive theoretical analysis of the efficacy of on-line advertising. The analysis focuses specifically on on-line communication research, with an in-depth study of the most widely used advertising formats. The chapter concludes with some recommendations for managers and academics for improving the efficacy of on-line communication particularly within the social network context.
Keywords. Advertising effectiveness, Internet advertising, online advertising formats, social network sites.
The consumer socialization framework cites the importance of family, peers, and mass media in the consumption learning process, but their impact on Millennials in the realm of green consumerism has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was (a) to propose an integrative theoretical model for determining the relative importance of socialization factors on Millennials’ green buying behavior and (b) to study the impact of culture in selecting socialization agents as sources of green product information.
Using Amazon M-Turk, an online survey was administered to a sample of younger Millennials from India (n = 253) and the United States (n = 253) aged 18 – 24 years. Structural equation modeling provided general support for the model. The results showed that interpersonal sources were more important in elevating environmental concerns and promoting green buying behavior than mass media. In India, family impacted environmental concern while peers influenced green buying behavior. For the US, both interpersonal sources impacted green attitudes and behavior. Environmental concern was found to play a mediating role in the socialization process and differences between and within genders in each country were found. Theoretical and marketing implications are discussed.
Purpose – Psychological perspective has been omitted or considered a secondary issue by past studies focused on e-commerce recommendation systems (RS). However, this perspective is key to gaining a better understanding of consumer behaviours when these systems are used to support purchasing processes at online stores. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
Design/methodology/approach – The field study consisted of a simulated online shopping process undertaken by a sample of internet users with a recommender system at a real online store (Pixmania). The authors applied rigorous and detailed exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess the empirical validity of the model.
Findings – The proposed sequence of psychological outcomes is valid, with the exception of one hypothesized relationship. In particular, satisfaction with an online store’s recommender has a strong influence on a consumer’s willingness to purchase one of the items related to his/her shopping goal. However, this satisfaction has no direct effect on a consumer’s intention to make add-on purchases based on the recommender’s suggestions. On the contrary, the results support the idea that add-on purchases are conditioned by a previous purchase related to the consumer’s initial shopping goal. On the other hand, a consumer’s flow state while shopping improves all his/her psychological outcomes linked to an online store’s recommender. The influence of flow state is particularly interesting when seeking to gain a better understanding of consumers’ unplanned purchases based on the recommender’s suggestions. These findings have important implications for practitioners.
Originality/value – This paper discusses in detail and empirically test a set of psychological outcomes that emerge when an e-vendor’s recommender is used to assist a consumer’s shopping process. To the best of the knowledge, this is the first attempt that empirically tests most of the hypothesized relationships within an online store’s RS context.
Social networking sites (SNSs) are a booming worldwide phenomenon with enormous business potential for companies to communicate with their target-audience consumers and spread their brand-related messages. One of the notable distinguishing characteristics of SNSs, when compared to previous Web 1.0-based communication tools, is the active role that consumers play in the communication process with companies and, even more importantly, with other consumers. SNSs provide a setting where commentaries, analyses and recommendations about brands, products and services are communicated. EWOM is a unique and powerful consequence of SNSs. In this chapter, we perform a conceptual analysis of eWOM, of the motivations for engaging in it and of its effects on consumers’ behavior, paying special attention to the type of eWOM that takes place in SNSs. Finally, some relevant managerial implications and research opportunities are discussed.
WOM eWOM Motivations Effects in consumers’ behavior Social networks
The proliferation of advertising in all communication media causes consumers to perceive a significant amount of competitiveness between advertised products, as well as to feel overwhelmed by the intrusiveness of their advertisements. When taken together, these dimensions form the concept “advertising clutter.” A review of the literature shows that perceived intrusiveness is the main component of the perception of clutter. Advertising clutter can prompt undesired behaviors (e.g., advertising avoidance) as well as attitudes contrary to those that companies’ advertising campaigns hope to achieve. It also leads to diminished advertising efficacy in terms of consumer memory, a decrease in positive attitudes towards the message and brand, as well as declined purchasing intention and, therefore, sales. In this article, the main consequences of advertising clutter for consumers in online media are reviewed and discussed. To that end, a theoretical review of this concept and its main dimensions is performed; special attention is paid to the online context. Finally, some practical recommendations and research opportunities are pointed out.
Intrusiveness Online advertising clutter Irritation Avoidance
Advertising investment on the Internet is currently growing at a faster rate than in all other means of communication. Specifically, companies’ integrated marketing communications (IMC) are using the Internet as a main means of advertising and, increasingly, social networks as part of their communication strategies. Given their growing importance, this chapter performs an exhaustive theoretical analysis of the efficacy of online advertising. First, we perform a detailed inventory of the main forms of advertising used on the Web and social networking sites. Afterward, we analyze the variables shown, through literature, to be most influential on online advertising effectiveness, paying special attention to the banner ad format. Next, the topic of advertising effectiveness in the specific context of social network sites is discussed. In conclusion, some relevant implications for practitioners and research opportunities are presented.
The aim of this paper is to contribute to the field of satisfaction research from the perspective of electronic banking users; a topic of great interest to the business strategies of financial institutions. In this context, the authors analyse the main determinants of user experience with a specific institution’s products. A comprehensive review of the scientific literature has justified the development of a behavioural model that explains satisfaction using a set of constructs or endogenous variables.
Data was collected from a self-administered web survey in the authenticated section of the electronic banking service of a prestigious financial institution.The analysis tests the relationship between the proposed variables (accessibility, trust, ease of use and usefulness) and satisfaction with electronic banking.
The study was limited to the data of a single financial institution. Caution should therefore be exercised in generalising the results. The research results provide a number of valuable conclusions for financial institutions. This paper is a pioneer study of satisfaction with electronic banking, especially of the relationships between satisfaction and its main determinants.
Microblogging social networks (μBSNs) provide the opportunity to communicate worldwide while using a small number of characters; this is an apparent limitation that forces users to share only essential information when linking to the world with which they interact. These platforms can serve to motivate students by narrowing the physical and psychological distances separating teachers and students, thus increasing their confidence and engagement in the learning process. The main thrust of this paper is the notion that μBSNs open a window to informal knowledge, self-directed learning and the creation of knowledge-based networks for use in aclassroom setting.
To examine this issue in greater depth, an experiment was carried out using a μBSN before, during and after face-to-face class sessions. In this study we used the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), incorporating some of the constructs commonly found in the scientific literature. These constructs refer to the effect of subjective norms and social images on the use of web-based social networks. The analysis gave rise to a robust and parsimonious model of social network usage behavior that confirmed the proposed research hypotheses. The findings demonstrated that the extended TAM model is suitable for explaining the acceptance of web-based teaching tools as well as the validity of microblogging networks in combination with traditional classes.