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Improving the Effectiveness of Advertising in Internet Social Networking. In Handbook of Research on Business Social Networking: Organizational, Managerial, and Technological Dimensions

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F., Sánchez-Fernández, J., & Muñoz-Leiva, F.
In Handbook of Research on Business Social Networking: Organizational, Managerial, and Technological Dimensions (Vol. 2, pp. 756–785). Cruz-Cunha, M. M., Goncalves, P., Lopes, N., Goran.
Publication year: 2012

In this paper we review the most recent developments and contributions in the field of social media to business and professional networking, marketing, and critical success factors including case studies in communications actions. More specifically, we focus on the role of advertising in Internet social networks (ISN) and their function as a channel of communication from the consumer’s perspective. To do so, we describe the important role ISNs play today in business strategies aimed at relationship marketing as well as the most widely-used advertising formats. We apply the Elaboration Likelihood Model of behavior to ISNs to gain a better understanding of advertising effectiveness from the standpoint of degree of involvement; distinguishing between vehicle exposure and ad involvement. Finally, factors that reduce the effectiveness of advertising in ISNs are revised using a model that focuses on cognitive avoidance. In the research, cognitive avoidance and advertising effectiveness are considered to be consequences of undesirable perceptions that emerge during exposure to advertisements.

Key Terms in this Chapter

ADVERGAMING: (Advertising and Gaming) Is the practice of using video games to advertise a product, organization or viewpoint. Advergames theoretically promote repeated traffic to websites and reinforce brands.

AdSense: A system developed and run by Google is one example of an advertising format that uses targeting. Website owners can enroll in the program to enable text, image, and video advertisements on their websites. These advertisements are administered by Google and generate revenue on either a per-click or per-impression basis. Google uses its search technology to embed ads according to the content of the web page being visited by the user, the user’s geographical location (by means of IP) and other data such as previous search histories in Google or pages visited by the user, cookies, length of session, operating system, browser used, etc.

Perceived Ad Clutter: Is a consumer’s conviction that the amount of advertising in a medium is excessive, because the increase number or proportion of advertising in the media vehicle.

Sponsored Links and Contextual Advertising: This form of advertising mimics the aspect of the web content on the ISN. It contains brief information about the indexed link and redirects users through clicks to an external web page or a fixed section of a brand or product on the Internet.

Pop-Up Ads & Pop-Under Ads: Pop-ups are a type of floating formats advertising that is automatically displayed in second browser window (generally without being requested by the user) when accessing certain web pages. Pop-ups are used to display an ad unit in an intrusive manner. Pop-unders are a similar advertising format that opens a new browser hidden behind the active window being used. Pop-unders interrupt users less, but are not seen until the window is closed, making it more difficult for users to determine which web site opened them.

Integrated Formats: Type of ad that includes: Sponsored links, AdSense, Banners, buttons, Full-page ads, skyscrapers.

Interstitials & Superstitials: Are a type of transitional formats,. The terms interstitial and superstitial mean “in the medium” or “over the medium” and can appear in a separate window when a web page requested by the user is being downloaded. These are web page advertisements that are similar to television commercials.

Ad Intrusiveness: Depending on the degree to which the advertisement interferes with the user’s cognitive process, perceived intrusiveness will be detectable to a lesser or greater degree.

Video Advertising: There are two main types of video formats: video formats which are placed in the content of a website known as in-page formats, and those in which advertisers embed their video message directly into video content. The latter, known as in-stream video formats can be divided into three different types: pre-rolls, mid-rolls and post-rolls. Pre-rolls show the advertisement before the main video content starts, mid-rolls are placed between two parts of video content and post-rolls present the video ad after the main content has finished.

Word of Mouth in Internet Social Networks (ISN-eWOM): e-Wom type that occurs in social networks and online media (i.e., social networks, blogs, forums and other 2.0 media).


E-WOM en redes socialesantecedentes y consecuencias

Book Chapter
Francisco Rejón Guardia, Juan Sánchez Fernández, Francisco Muñoz Leiva
Estratégias de distribución y comportamiento de compra multicanal: Tendencias y oportunidades para que fabricante y distribuidor rentabilicen sus decisiones de marketing / coord. por Rodolfo Vázquez Casielles Árbol académico, Juan Antonio Trespalacios Gutiérrez Árbol académico, Eduardo Estrada Alonso Árbol académico, Celina González Mieres, 2013, ISBN 978-84-8367-431-4, págs. 333-352
Publication year: 2013
  • En los últimos años las redes sociales en internet se han convertido en un fenómeno de gran trascendencia y aceptación, relacionando tanto a particulares como a empresas. Éstas se distinguen por la participación activa de los consumidores, que comparten contenidos e información valiosa con sus contactos. se convierten también en un lugar crucial donde realizar comentarios, análisis y recomendaciones sobre marcas, productos y servicios, siendo el ewom (electronic word-of-mouth) una particular consecuencia de la actividad en dichas redes sociales. En este capítulo se realiza un análisis conceptual del ewom, de las motivaciones para realizarlo y sus efectos.
  • Englishin recent years online social networks have become a phenomenon of great importance and acceptance by companies and users. it distinguished for the active consumers participation related with share content and valuable information with their contacts. online social networks become a crucial place to comment, analyze and make recommendations on brands, products and services by the ewom (electronic word-of-mouth), that representing a particularly and powerful predecessor of the activity on these sites. This chapter presents a conceptual analysis of ewom, the motivation to do it and its effects.

Educational Applications of Clickers in University Teaching

Book Chapter
Liébana-Cabanillas, F. J., Martínez-Fiestas, M., & Rejón-Guardia, F.
In D. Griol Barres, Z. Callejas Carrión, & R. Delgado (Eds.) Technologies for Inclusive Education: Beyond Traditional Integration Approaches (pp. 285-304). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
Publication year: 2013

The purpose of this chapter is to contextualize the situation of the use of remote response devices or clickers in education and identify the benefits that tools such as Q-Click software can bring to university teaching and to different groups of students. To fulfil this objective, the authors conducted research in classes with students who rated 149 different aspects related to the use of such software, including its use in class, benefits, and implications for follow-up assessment of the subject, attention, and class quality. This information was then compared to other groups of students studying the same subject who did not use clickers in class. The findings confirm the original proposal verifying the usefulness of these tools in university teaching for the important consequences for students and teachers.


The real interest of young people in Information Technology and Communication (ICT) is a phenomenon that has been widely studied in scientific literature because of its implications and social consequences. It is common knowledge that today’s youth have the highest rates of use of computers, Internet access, email, and mobile phones, among other technologies (National Institute of Statistics, INE, 2011). A college education should therefore use these tools to improve processes and outcomes of student learning (Wan et al., 2007) to meet the targets set in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).

The analysis of the implementation of ICT in teaching began several decades ago as its advantages, which reinforced the educational level of students, were recognized. Ferro et al. (2009) summarizes the main advantages of using ICT in university teaching. ICTs:

  • 1. Break space-time barriers in teaching and learning activities.
  • 2. Create open and flexible learning processes.
  • 3. Improve communication between the various players in the teaching and learning process.
  • 4. Personalize education.
  • 5. Provide quick access to information.
  • 6. Facilitate interaction with information.
  • 7. Raise the interest level and motivation of students.
  • 8. Improve educational effectiveness.
  • 9. Allow the teacher more time for other tasks.
  • 10. Support follow-up learning.

To date there have been many innovations that have been implemented in teaching: (i) multimedia tools (Alférez et al., 2010), (ii) whiteboards (Murillo, 2010), (iii) web sites (Gates, 2011), (iv) wikis (Ortiz de Urbina and Mora, 2011), (v) forums (Benitez et al., 2011), (vi) Mobile Learning (Liaw et al., 2009), (vii) second life (Checa, 2010) and even (viii) microblogging networks (Liébana-Cabanillas et al., 2011).

The use of remote response devices, electronic voting systems, systems and audience response clickers, began in the sixties (Chafer, 2009), although it was not until the nineties when their use began to flourish. Although these devices were originally used for management meetings, opinion surveys, and conventions, etc. (Ruiz-Jimenez et al., 2010), such tools are widely used in some American universities (Harvard, Massachusetts-Amherst, Colorado, etc.). Recently, these devices are also being used in Spanish universities (Navarra, Barcelona, Granada, Seville, Madrid, etc.) since remote response devices reinforce the quality of education, and improve student performance and the productivity of teachers.

These are devices that allow students to obtain information found in the classroom in an agile, fast and simple via a transmitter (clicker) and receiver system connected by infrared or Bluetooth, to communicate and record responses that students make.

The information obtained in the interaction is processed immediately, allowing instant feedback between teacher and student, which demonstrates class understanding and knowledge on a regular basis, as well as potential problems that students may have with the subject.


n Integrated Review of the Efficacy of Internet Advertising: Concrete Approaches to the Banner Ad Format and the Context of Social Networks

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F., & Martínez-López, F. J.
In Handbook of Strategic e-Business Management (pp. 523–564). Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication year: 2014

Advertising investment on the Internet is currently growing at a faster rate than in all other means of communication. Specifically, companies’ integrated marketing communications (IMC) are using the Internet as a main means of advertising and, increasingly, social networks as part of their communication strategies. Given their growing importance, this chapter performs an exhaustive theoretical analysis of the efficacy of online advertising. First, we perform a detailed inventory of the main forms of advertising used on the Web and social networking sites. Afterward, we analyze the variables shown, through literature, to be most influential on online advertising effectiveness, paying special attention to the banner ad format. Next, the topic of advertising effectiveness in the specific context of social network sites is discussed. In conclusion, some relevant implications for practitioners and research opportunities are presented.

Keywords: Advertising effectiveness Internet advertising Online advertising Advertising formats Banner ads Social network sites


Online Advertising Intrusiveness and Consumers’ Avoidance Behaviors.

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F., & Martínez-López, F. J.
In Handbook of Strategic e-Business Management (pp. 565–586). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Publication year: 2014

The proliferation of advertising in all communication media causes consumers to perceive a significant amount of competitiveness between advertised products, as well as to feel overwhelmed by the intrusiveness of their advertisements. When taken together, these dimensions form the concept “advertising clutter.” A review of the literature shows that perceived intrusiveness is the main component of the perception of clutter. Advertising clutter can prompt undesired behaviors (e.g., advertising avoidance) as well as attitudes contrary to those that companies’ advertising campaigns hope to achieve. It also leads to diminished advertising efficacy in terms of consumer memory, a decrease in positive attitudes towards the message and brand, as well as declined purchasing intention and, therefore, sales. In this article, the main consequences of advertising clutter for consumers in online media are reviewed and discussed. To that end, a theoretical review of this concept and its main dimensions is performed; special attention is paid to the online context. Finally, some practical recommendations and research opportunities are pointed out.


Intrusiveness Online advertising clutter Irritation Avoidance


The Pervasive Influence of Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) on Today’s Social Consumer

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F., & Martínez-López, F. J.
In Handbook of Strategic e-Business Management (pp. 821–839). Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication year: 2014

Social networking sites (SNSs) are a booming worldwide phenomenon with enormous business potential for companies to communicate with their target-audience consumers and spread their brand-related messages. One of the notable distinguishing characteristics of SNSs, when compared to previous Web 1.0-based communication tools, is the active role that consumers play in the communication process with companies and, even more importantly, with other consumers. SNSs provide a setting where commentaries, analyses and recommendations about brands, products and services are communicated. EWOM is a unique and powerful consequence of SNSs. In this chapter, we perform a conceptual analysis of eWOM, of the motivations for engaging in it and of its effects on consumers’ behavior, paying special attention to the type of eWOM that takes place in SNSs. Finally, some relevant managerial implications and research opportunities are discussed.


WOM eWOM Motivations Effects in consumers’ behavior Social networks

Digital advertising

A review of Classics and new Internet and Social networks advertising formats

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F. & Martínez-López, F.J.
In Digital Advertising co-edited by Drs. Shelly Rodgers and Esther Thorson. Editorial Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
Publication year: 2016

The upward trend in investing in Internet advertising highlights the increasing use of the Net as a space for performing promotional activities. Specifically, companies’ integrated marketing communications (IMC) are using the Internet as a main means of advertising and, increasingly social networks, as part of their communication strategies. This chapter provides an exhaustive theoretical analysis of the efficacy of on-line advertising. The analysis focuses specifically on on-line communication research, with an in-depth study of the most widely used advertising formats. The chapter concludes with some recommendations for managers and academics for improving the efficacy of on-line communication particularly within the social network context.

Keywords. Advertising effectiveness, Internet advertising, online advertising formats, social network sites.


Evaluation of the Cognitive Effectiveness on Social Media Advertising Formats.

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F., Martínez-López, F. J., Esteban-Millat, I., & Gázquez-Abad, J. C.
In Let’s Get Engaged! Crossing the Threshold of Marketing’s Engagement Era (pp. 133-134). Springer International Publishing
Publication year: 2016

Social networking sites (SNS) are used to promote brands, products or services through targeted marketing campaigns, but the precise effectiveness of these campaigns has yet to be established (Van Noort et al. 2012). The research question we address in this study is whether commercial communication via SNS is cognitively effective. A review of the literature clearly shows that if a commercial message receives no prior attention, the likelihood that it will be processed by and influence the consumer is negligible (Chan et al. 2004).

For the purposes of this study we consider that an individual has given attention to a message when the advertising information transmitted has an impact on his or her memory, in the form of brand recall and recognition. A classical post-test survey design was used to examine the responses of a panel of Facebook users to advertising formats displayed within the site. The type of advertising format was used as a control factor to determine the impact on the cognitive effectiveness of the message transmitted. The study has a twofold objective: (1) to examine which of the formats most commonly used in social media advertising condition attention types; and (2) to analyse the effect of advertising pressure on consumer attention and brand recall.

Social media advertising is an effective communication tool for attracting user attention, leading to higher attention levels than those recorded for advertising in other online contexts. Differences are observed in user attention to distinct advertising stimuli, with video found to be the most effective format for attracting user attention in SNS. However, higher advertising pressure leads to lower attention levels and poorer recall rates. Active exposure to social media advertising leads to higher recall rates of the messages transmitted. The constraints of this study include the use of single product/brand, and the experimental conditions of the data collection stage. Among our future areas of research we propose to evaluate attention in behavioural terms, using a range of tools including eye-tracking to provide empirical evidence of attention rates for social media advertising.

Keywords: Cognitive Effectiveness Social Media Advertising Brand Recall Consumer Attention

How Delisting All National Brands in a Given Assortment Impacts on Consumers’ Store Switching Intentions

Book Chapter
Gázquez-Abad, J. C., Martínez-López, F. J., Esteban-Millat, I., Mondéjar-Jiménez, J. A., & Rejón-Guardia, F.
In Let’s Get Engaged! Crossing the Threshold of Marketing’s Engagement Era (pp. 115-116). Springer International Publishing.
Publication year: 2016

Brand delisting is a specific type of assortment reduction. It refers to the removal of all items of a single brand, leading to the unavailability of the brand within the store (Sloot and Verhoef 2008, p. 281). Recent retailing-related professional publications indicate that national brand (NB) delistings are not uncommon in food retailing (e.g., the American retailer Wal-Mart, the Dutch food retail chain Edah, the UK retailer ASDA, the German retailers Edeka and Metro, and the Spanish retailer Mercadona). Conflicts of retailers with manufacturers seemed to be behind such delisting decisions. Indeed, delisting – or threatening to delist – a manufacturer’s brand is a tool that retailers often use to improve their negotiation position with brand manufacturers. Notwithstanding, despite the great managerial relevance of this topic, researchers have paid almost no attention to brand delisting so far. There is only limited research (papers by Boatwright and Nunes 2001; Sloot and Verhoef 2008; Wiebach and Hildebrandt 2012) on the effects of an entire brand delisting. However, none of these papers analyzes the consequences of delisting all national brands in a given assortment, so that a retailer offers an assortment based only on private labels (PL). Can a retailer ‘push out’ all manufacturer brands from its shelves, offering only its own brand, with no consequences? This is the main research question of our paper.

In summary, our results reveal that retailers should be particularly careful about delisting NBs (specially high-equity NBs), given that there is an inverse relationship between assortment size and the intentions to switch to another store to purchase the category as well as the whole shopping-basket. Therefore, we recommend retailers to offer assortments containing both their own brand and a higher number of NBs (nine vs. three). Offering ‘only-PL’ assortments has negative consequences in terms of consumers having a greater probability to switch to another store to purchase. Nevertheless, for retailers offering ‘mixed’ assortments, a higher proportion of high-equity NBs may help to reduce the intentions to switch to another store.

This research has been funded by Foundation Ramón Areces (Spain).


Brands Brand Delisting National Brand Private Label


Main Psychological Sequence of Responses Linked to the Consumer’s Use of an e-Vendor’s Recommender

Book Chapter
Martínez-López, F. J., Esteban-Millat, I., Argila, A. M., & Rejón-Guardia, F.
In Let’s Get Engaged! Crossing the Threshold of Marketing’s Engagement Era (pp. 69-70). Springer International Publishing.
Publication year: 2016

Studies on e-commerce recommendation systems with a focus on marketing and, specifically, on consumers and their decision-making, are harder to find. Nevertheless, this approach is important to gaining an understanding of the adoption and use of e-commerce. We focus on the chain of psychological outcomes linked to an e-vendor’s RS that emerge once such a system is adopted and used to support an online shopping process and possible purchase. As a basis for our approach, we use the theoretical proposal by Martínez-López et al. (2010) for this purpose. In particular, we consider a sequence of four psychological variables with reference to which it is posited that consumers’ perceived performance of an online store’s recommendation system (RS) and their satisfaction with it have an influence on their willingness to purchase with the support of such a system’s suggestions. Other direct antecedent variables are considered too, taken from classic and novel consumer behaviour theories applied to online shopping environments. However, this interesting sequence of psychological responses has yet to be empirically tested.

Our model is based on the integrative, theoretical model proposed by Martínez-López et al. (2010). It works with a set of four constructs as psychological responses related to the use of an e-vendor’s RS: the consumer’s perception of the RS’s performance; satisfaction with the RS; willingness to buy a searched item based on the RS’s recommendation; and finally, willingness to make a cross/add-on purchase based on the system’s suggestions. Furthermore, three antecedents are included for such responses.

In order to test the structural model, based on the same reasons presented above, we applied a RWLS method. Model fit indices were generally quite satisfactory. The estimation of the model’s structural coefficients showed all our hypotheses to be significant, with the exception of H10. The results showed that there is no direct relationship (although there is an indirect relationship through the predisposition of the consumer to purchase) between the user’s satisfaction with the RS-WS and his/her predisposition to make a crossed purchase or a more expensive purchase. In other words, individuals who are satisfied with the RS are generally more inclined to purchase what the system recommends in relation to their primary search object, but they will not be more inclined to purchase products/services outside their primary shopping goal, related to add-on selling suggestions. To be specific, consumers will only be more inclined to purchase add-on products to their primary shopping goal (i.e. cross/up selling) when they intend to follow the recommendations of the RS in relation to their initial search. This is when they are willing to accept and follow other suggestions made by the recommender about other products that complement their initial shopping goal or are more expensive.

Keywords: Online store Consumer Responses to recommendation system Psychological perspective