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Gender as a moderating element of customer satisfaction with electronic banking? An empirical study

Journal paper
Liebana-Cabanillas, F., Martínez-Fiestas, M., Rejón-Guardia, F., & Muñoz-Leiva, F.
The International Journal of Management Science and Information Technology (IJMSIT), 5(5), 1–33
Publication year: 2012

The importance of Electronic Banking as an alternative channel for marketing products and services, along with the associated cost savings, has brought about significant changes in the financial sector in recent years. Electronic Banking has become a differentiator among financial institutions, which has led to an attempt to increase customer satisfaction level by fulfilling their expectations. Accordingly, the goal of this paper is to identify the factors that influence the satisfaction level of Electronic Banking users in Spain, following a proposed behavioural model, in addition to determining the influence of the gender variable on our analysis, as a moderator in such relationships. The usefulness of this type of research for financial institutions lies in the support they provide in defining customer profiles. When compared to other similar online satisfaction survey studies, this paper is a pioneer in using empirical analysis to study the effects of gender on customer satisfaction in online banking.


Improving the Effectiveness of Advertising in Internet Social Networking. In Handbook of Research on Business Social Networking: Organizational, Managerial, and Technological Dimensions

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F., Sánchez-Fernández, J., & Muñoz-Leiva, F.
In Handbook of Research on Business Social Networking: Organizational, Managerial, and Technological Dimensions (Vol. 2, pp. 756–785). Cruz-Cunha, M. M., Goncalves, P., Lopes, N., Goran.
Publication year: 2012

In this paper we review the most recent developments and contributions in the field of social media to business and professional networking, marketing, and critical success factors including case studies in communications actions. More specifically, we focus on the role of advertising in Internet social networks (ISN) and their function as a channel of communication from the consumer’s perspective. To do so, we describe the important role ISNs play today in business strategies aimed at relationship marketing as well as the most widely-used advertising formats. We apply the Elaboration Likelihood Model of behavior to ISNs to gain a better understanding of advertising effectiveness from the standpoint of degree of involvement; distinguishing between vehicle exposure and ad involvement. Finally, factors that reduce the effectiveness of advertising in ISNs are revised using a model that focuses on cognitive avoidance. In the research, cognitive avoidance and advertising effectiveness are considered to be consequences of undesirable perceptions that emerge during exposure to advertisements.

Key Terms in this Chapter

ADVERGAMING: (Advertising and Gaming) Is the practice of using video games to advertise a product, organization or viewpoint. Advergames theoretically promote repeated traffic to websites and reinforce brands.

AdSense: A system developed and run by Google is one example of an advertising format that uses targeting. Website owners can enroll in the program to enable text, image, and video advertisements on their websites. These advertisements are administered by Google and generate revenue on either a per-click or per-impression basis. Google uses its search technology to embed ads according to the content of the web page being visited by the user, the user’s geographical location (by means of IP) and other data such as previous search histories in Google or pages visited by the user, cookies, length of session, operating system, browser used, etc.

Perceived Ad Clutter: Is a consumer’s conviction that the amount of advertising in a medium is excessive, because the increase number or proportion of advertising in the media vehicle.

Sponsored Links and Contextual Advertising: This form of advertising mimics the aspect of the web content on the ISN. It contains brief information about the indexed link and redirects users through clicks to an external web page or a fixed section of a brand or product on the Internet.

Pop-Up Ads & Pop-Under Ads: Pop-ups are a type of floating formats advertising that is automatically displayed in second browser window (generally without being requested by the user) when accessing certain web pages. Pop-ups are used to display an ad unit in an intrusive manner. Pop-unders are a similar advertising format that opens a new browser hidden behind the active window being used. Pop-unders interrupt users less, but are not seen until the window is closed, making it more difficult for users to determine which web site opened them.

Integrated Formats: Type of ad that includes: Sponsored links, AdSense, Banners, buttons, Full-page ads, skyscrapers.

Interstitials & Superstitials: Are a type of transitional formats,. The terms interstitial and superstitial mean “in the medium” or “over the medium” and can appear in a separate window when a web page requested by the user is being downloaded. These are web page advertisements that are similar to television commercials.

Ad Intrusiveness: Depending on the degree to which the advertisement interferes with the user’s cognitive process, perceived intrusiveness will be detectable to a lesser or greater degree.

Video Advertising: There are two main types of video formats: video formats which are placed in the content of a website known as in-page formats, and those in which advertisers embed their video message directly into video content. The latter, known as in-stream video formats can be divided into three different types: pre-rolls, mid-rolls and post-rolls. Pre-rolls show the advertisement before the main video content starts, mid-rolls are placed between two parts of video content and post-rolls present the video ad after the main content has finished.

Word of Mouth in Internet Social Networks (ISN-eWOM): e-Wom type that occurs in social networks and online media (i.e., social networks, blogs, forums and other 2.0 media).


E-WOM en redes socialesantecedentes y consecuencias

Book Chapter
Francisco Rejón Guardia, Juan Sánchez Fernández, Francisco Muñoz Leiva
Estratégias de distribución y comportamiento de compra multicanal: Tendencias y oportunidades para que fabricante y distribuidor rentabilicen sus decisiones de marketing / coord. por Rodolfo Vázquez Casielles Árbol académico, Juan Antonio Trespalacios Gutiérrez Árbol académico, Eduardo Estrada Alonso Árbol académico, Celina González Mieres, 2013, ISBN 978-84-8367-431-4, págs. 333-352
Publication year: 2013
  • En los últimos años las redes sociales en internet se han convertido en un fenómeno de gran trascendencia y aceptación, relacionando tanto a particulares como a empresas. Éstas se distinguen por la participación activa de los consumidores, que comparten contenidos e información valiosa con sus contactos. se convierten también en un lugar crucial donde realizar comentarios, análisis y recomendaciones sobre marcas, productos y servicios, siendo el ewom (electronic word-of-mouth) una particular consecuencia de la actividad en dichas redes sociales. En este capítulo se realiza un análisis conceptual del ewom, de las motivaciones para realizarlo y sus efectos.
  • Englishin recent years online social networks have become a phenomenon of great importance and acceptance by companies and users. it distinguished for the active consumers participation related with share content and valuable information with their contacts. online social networks become a crucial place to comment, analyze and make recommendations on brands, products and services by the ewom (electronic word-of-mouth), that representing a particularly and powerful predecessor of the activity on these sites. This chapter presents a conceptual analysis of ewom, the motivation to do it and its effects.

Educational Applications of Clickers in University Teaching

Book Chapter
Liébana-Cabanillas, F. J., Martínez-Fiestas, M., & Rejón-Guardia, F.
In D. Griol Barres, Z. Callejas Carrión, & R. Delgado (Eds.) Technologies for Inclusive Education: Beyond Traditional Integration Approaches (pp. 285-304). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
Publication year: 2013

The purpose of this chapter is to contextualize the situation of the use of remote response devices or clickers in education and identify the benefits that tools such as Q-Click software can bring to university teaching and to different groups of students. To fulfil this objective, the authors conducted research in classes with students who rated 149 different aspects related to the use of such software, including its use in class, benefits, and implications for follow-up assessment of the subject, attention, and class quality. This information was then compared to other groups of students studying the same subject who did not use clickers in class. The findings confirm the original proposal verifying the usefulness of these tools in university teaching for the important consequences for students and teachers.


The real interest of young people in Information Technology and Communication (ICT) is a phenomenon that has been widely studied in scientific literature because of its implications and social consequences. It is common knowledge that today’s youth have the highest rates of use of computers, Internet access, email, and mobile phones, among other technologies (National Institute of Statistics, INE, 2011). A college education should therefore use these tools to improve processes and outcomes of student learning (Wan et al., 2007) to meet the targets set in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).

The analysis of the implementation of ICT in teaching began several decades ago as its advantages, which reinforced the educational level of students, were recognized. Ferro et al. (2009) summarizes the main advantages of using ICT in university teaching. ICTs:

  • 1. Break space-time barriers in teaching and learning activities.
  • 2. Create open and flexible learning processes.
  • 3. Improve communication between the various players in the teaching and learning process.
  • 4. Personalize education.
  • 5. Provide quick access to information.
  • 6. Facilitate interaction with information.
  • 7. Raise the interest level and motivation of students.
  • 8. Improve educational effectiveness.
  • 9. Allow the teacher more time for other tasks.
  • 10. Support follow-up learning.

To date there have been many innovations that have been implemented in teaching: (i) multimedia tools (Alférez et al., 2010), (ii) whiteboards (Murillo, 2010), (iii) web sites (Gates, 2011), (iv) wikis (Ortiz de Urbina and Mora, 2011), (v) forums (Benitez et al., 2011), (vi) Mobile Learning (Liaw et al., 2009), (vii) second life (Checa, 2010) and even (viii) microblogging networks (Liébana-Cabanillas et al., 2011).

The use of remote response devices, electronic voting systems, systems and audience response clickers, began in the sixties (Chafer, 2009), although it was not until the nineties when their use began to flourish. Although these devices were originally used for management meetings, opinion surveys, and conventions, etc. (Ruiz-Jimenez et al., 2010), such tools are widely used in some American universities (Harvard, Massachusetts-Amherst, Colorado, etc.). Recently, these devices are also being used in Spanish universities (Navarra, Barcelona, Granada, Seville, Madrid, etc.) since remote response devices reinforce the quality of education, and improve student performance and the productivity of teachers.

These are devices that allow students to obtain information found in the classroom in an agile, fast and simple via a transmitter (clicker) and receiver system connected by infrared or Bluetooth, to communicate and record responses that students make.

The information obtained in the interaction is processed immediately, allowing instant feedback between teacher and student, which demonstrates class understanding and knowledge on a regular basis, as well as potential problems that students may have with the subject.

Introducción al marketing: selección de capítulos de Introducción al Marketing

Liébana Cabanillas, F. J., Martínez Fiestas, M., Rejón-Guardia, F., & Armstrong, G. (Eds.).
3a ed. de Gary Armstrong, et al (2a ed.). Madrid: Pearson Educación
Publication year: 2013

The acceptance of microblogging in the learning process – The μbam Model

Journal paper
Rejón-Guardia, F., Sánchez-Fernández, J., & Muñoz-Leiva, F.
Journal of Technology and Science Education, Vol 3, Nº1
Publication year: 2013

Microblogging social networks (μBSNs) provide the opportunity to communicate worldwide while using a small number of characters; this is an apparent limitation that forces users to share only essential information when linking to the world with which they interact. These platforms can serve to motivate students by narrowing the physical and psychological distances separating teachers and students, thus increasing their confidence and engagement in the learning process. The main thrust of this paper is the notion that μBSNs open a window to informal knowledge, self-directed learning and the creation of knowledge-based networks for use in aclassroom setting.

To examine this issue in greater depth, an experiment was carried out using a μBSN before, during and after face-to-face class sessions. In this study we used the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), incorporating some of the constructs commonly found in the scientific literature. These constructs refer to the effect of subjective norms and social images on the use of web-based social networks. The analysis gave rise to a robust and parsimonious model of social network usage behavior that confirmed the proposed research hypotheses. The findings demonstrated that the extended TAM model is suitable for explaining the acceptance of web-based teaching tools as well as the validity of microblogging networks in combination with traditional classes.

Keywords: self e-learning; TAM; µBAM; microblogging; social networks


The determinants of satisfaction with e-banking

Journal paper
Francisco Liébana‐Cabanillas, Francisco Muñoz‐Leiva, Francisco Rejón‐Guardia,
Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 113 Iss: 5, pp.750 - 767
Publication year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to contribute to the field of satisfaction research from the perspective of electronic banking users; a topic of great interest to the business strategies of financial institutions. In this context, the authors analyse the main determinants of user experience with a specific institution’s products. A comprehensive review of the scientific literature has justified the development of a behavioural model that explains satisfaction using a set of constructs or endogenous variables.

Data was collected from a self-administered web survey in the authenticated section of the electronic banking service of a prestigious financial institution.The analysis tests the relationship between the proposed variables (accessibility, trust, ease of use and usefulness) and satisfaction with electronic banking.

The study was limited to the data of a single financial institution. Caution should therefore be exercised in generalising the results. The research results provide a number of valuable conclusions for financial institutions. This paper is a pioneer study of satisfaction with electronic banking, especially of the relationships between satisfaction and its main determinants.

Keyword: Electronic banking, Satisfaction, Determinants, Expectation disconfirmation, Banking, Customer satisfaction


n Integrated Review of the Efficacy of Internet Advertising: Concrete Approaches to the Banner Ad Format and the Context of Social Networks

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F., & Martínez-López, F. J.
In Handbook of Strategic e-Business Management (pp. 523–564). Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication year: 2014

Advertising investment on the Internet is currently growing at a faster rate than in all other means of communication. Specifically, companies’ integrated marketing communications (IMC) are using the Internet as a main means of advertising and, increasingly, social networks as part of their communication strategies. Given their growing importance, this chapter performs an exhaustive theoretical analysis of the efficacy of online advertising. First, we perform a detailed inventory of the main forms of advertising used on the Web and social networking sites. Afterward, we analyze the variables shown, through literature, to be most influential on online advertising effectiveness, paying special attention to the banner ad format. Next, the topic of advertising effectiveness in the specific context of social network sites is discussed. In conclusion, some relevant implications for practitioners and research opportunities are presented.

Keywords: Advertising effectiveness Internet advertising Online advertising Advertising formats Banner ads Social network sites


Online Advertising Intrusiveness and Consumers’ Avoidance Behaviors.

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F., & Martínez-López, F. J.
In Handbook of Strategic e-Business Management (pp. 565–586). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Publication year: 2014

The proliferation of advertising in all communication media causes consumers to perceive a significant amount of competitiveness between advertised products, as well as to feel overwhelmed by the intrusiveness of their advertisements. When taken together, these dimensions form the concept “advertising clutter.” A review of the literature shows that perceived intrusiveness is the main component of the perception of clutter. Advertising clutter can prompt undesired behaviors (e.g., advertising avoidance) as well as attitudes contrary to those that companies’ advertising campaigns hope to achieve. It also leads to diminished advertising efficacy in terms of consumer memory, a decrease in positive attitudes towards the message and brand, as well as declined purchasing intention and, therefore, sales. In this article, the main consequences of advertising clutter for consumers in online media are reviewed and discussed. To that end, a theoretical review of this concept and its main dimensions is performed; special attention is paid to the online context. Finally, some practical recommendations and research opportunities are pointed out.


Intrusiveness Online advertising clutter Irritation Avoidance


The Pervasive Influence of Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) on Today’s Social Consumer

Book Chapter
Rejón-Guardia, F., & Martínez-López, F. J.
In Handbook of Strategic e-Business Management (pp. 821–839). Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication year: 2014

Social networking sites (SNSs) are a booming worldwide phenomenon with enormous business potential for companies to communicate with their target-audience consumers and spread their brand-related messages. One of the notable distinguishing characteristics of SNSs, when compared to previous Web 1.0-based communication tools, is the active role that consumers play in the communication process with companies and, even more importantly, with other consumers. SNSs provide a setting where commentaries, analyses and recommendations about brands, products and services are communicated. EWOM is a unique and powerful consequence of SNSs. In this chapter, we perform a conceptual analysis of eWOM, of the motivations for engaging in it and of its effects on consumers’ behavior, paying special attention to the type of eWOM that takes place in SNSs. Finally, some relevant managerial implications and research opportunities are discussed.


WOM eWOM Motivations Effects in consumers’ behavior Social networks